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True OriginsContentsPrefaceIntroductionChapter OneChapter Two

Chapter ThreeChapter FourChapter FiveChapter SixChapter SevenChapter Eight

Chapter NineChapter TenChapter elevenChapter TwelveChapter ThirteenChapter Fourteen

Chapter FifteenChapter SixteenChapter SeventeenBibliography

[The True Origins of Irish Society Copyright © 2003 by Desmond Keenan
Hard copy of book available from and]


Adamnan, St, trans. with introduction and notes by Richard Sharpe, Life of St Columba, Penguin Books, 1991

Appleby, John T., King John of England, New York, 1959

Arnold, Bruce, Concise  History of Irish Art, London, 1977

Atelier Productions, The Romans in Breconshire and Radnorshire, Borth, Dyfed, 1995

Augustine, St, trans. Raymond Canning, The Rule of Saint Augustine, London, 1996


Barnie, John, War in Medieval Society, London, 1974

Bede, St, trans. Leo Shirley-Price, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Penguin, 1990

Bellamy, D., Bellamy’s Ireland: the Wild Boglands, London, 1986

Bell, Robert, The Book of Ulster Surnames, Belfast, 1988

Benedict, St, trans. Luke Dysinger, The Rule of Saint Benedict, Trabuco Canyon CA, 1997

Binns, Alan, Viking Voyagers, London, 1980

Brady, C., O’Dowd, M., and  Walker, B., Ulster, an Illustrated History, London, 1989

Braun, Hugh, English Abbeys, London, 1971

Brown, R. Allen, Origins of English Feudalism, London, 1973

Bryant, A. Makers of the Realm, London, 1955

Burke, Bernard, Peerage and Baronetage, London, 1949

Burke, J.F. Outlines of the Industrial History of Ireland, Dublin, n.d.

Byrne, Francis, Irish Kings and High Kings, London, 1973


Cable, M. and French, F., The Gobi Desert, London, 1942, Virago Press reprint 1984

Canavan, Tony, Frontier Town, Belfast, 1989

Chrimes, S. An Introduction to the Administrative History of Medieval England, Oxford, 1966

Clifton-Taylor, A., The Cathedrals of England, London, 1979

Coles, J.M., and Harding, The Bronze Age in Europe, London, 1979

Collingwood, R.G., and Myres, J.N.L., Roman Britain and the English Settlements, Oxford, 1956

Corish, P., The Irish Catholic Experience, Dublin, 1985

Cottrell, L., The Great Invasion, London, 1961

Cunliffe, Barry, The Ancient Celts, Oxford, 1997

-------------------Facing the Ocean, Oxford, 2001

Curtis, E., A History of Ireland, London, 1961


D’Alton, E.A. History of Ireland, London, 1912

Daniel, Glyn, Megaliths in History, London, 1972

David, R., The Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt, London, 1986

Davies, Norman, Europe, Oxford, 1997

Davies, N, Voyagers to the New World, Fact or Fancy?, London, 1979

de Breffny, Brian, ed. Ireland: A Cultural Encyclopaedia, London, 1983

de Paor, Liam, The Peoples of Ireland, London, 1986

-----------------, Saint Patrick’s World, Dublin, 1993

Divine, David, The North-West Frontier of Rome, London, 1969

Dolley, M., Anglo-Norman Ireland, Dublin 1972

Duncan, E.D., The Calendar, London, 1999


Ellis, S., Tudor Ireland, London, 1985

Evans, Gwynfor, Land of my Fathers, Swansea, 1992


Foote, P. G. and Wilson, D.M., The Viking Achievement, London, 1970

Fraser, D., Wales in History, Cardiff, 1967

Freeman, T.W. Ireland, a General and Regional Geography, London, 1960

Furlong, N., Dermot King of Leinster and the Foreigners, Tralee, 1973


Gerald of Wales (trans. Lewis Thorpe), The Journey through Wales and  Description of Wales, Penguin, 1978

Gillespie, R and O’Sullivan, H. The Borderlands, Belfast, 1989

Gwynn, A., and Handcock, Medieval Religious Houses in Ireland, Dublin, 1988


Harbison, P., Pre-Christian Ireland, London, 1900

Harbison, P., Potterton, H., and Sheehy, J, Irish Art and Architecture, London, 1978

Hawkes, J. and Wooley, L., History of Mankind, vol., London, 1963

Hayes-McCoy, G.A. Irish Battles, a Military History of Ireland, Belfast, 1990

Henson, E. Rare Breeds in History, Cheltenham, 1982

Hinkson, P., told to, Seventy Years Young, Memories of Elizabeth, Countess of Fingall, Dublin, 1991

Hitching, Francis, Earth Magic, London, 1976

Hooke, S. Middle Eastern Mythology, Viking Press, 1991

Hubert, H., The Rise of the Celts, London, 1987


Jacobsen, T., Treasures of Darkness: A History of Mesopotamian Religion, Yale, 1986

Jordan of Saxony, trans. Gerald Deighan, The Life of the Brethren, Villanova PA, 1993

Joyce, P.W. A Concise History of Ireland, Dublin, 1900


Keegan, J., The Mask of Command, London, 1987

Keenan, D., The Catholic Church in Nineteenth Century Ireland, Dublin and Towata, 1983

Killanin, Lord and Duigenan, M.V., The Shell Guide to Ireland, Dublin, 1969

King, C.A.M., Physical Geography, Oxford, 1980

Kinsella, T., trans., The Tain, London, 1970

Knowles, D., Thomas Becket, London, 1970


Laing, Lloyd, Celtic Britain, Scribner, 1979

---------------The Archaeology of Late Celtic Britain and Ireland, London, 1975

Laing, L. and Laing, J., The Origins of Britain, London, 1987

Lydon, James ed., England and Ireland in the Later Middle Ages,  London, 1975


McNeill, T.E. Anglo-Norman Ulster, Edinburgh, 1980

MacNiocaill, G., Ireland Before the Vikings, Dublin, 1972

McEvedy, C., The Penguin Atlas of Medieval History, Penguin Books, 1971

M’Kenna,J.E., Diocese of Clogher Parochial Records, Monaghan, Enniskillen, 1920

Mitchell, F., Reading the Irish Landscape, London, 1986

Moody, T.W., Martin, F.X. and Byrne, F.J. A New History of Ireland, Vol. IX, Oxford, 1984

Morrison, A., Early Man in Britain and Ireland, London, 1980

Mullin, T. H. and Mullan, J.E. The Ulster Clans, Limavady, 1984


O’Corrain, D. Ireland before the Normans, Dublin, 1972

Ordnance Survey Ireland Publications, Map of Monastic Ireland, Dublin, 1977

Ordnance Survey Britain Publications, Field Archaeology in Britain, Southampton, 1973

Otto, R., The Idea of the Holy, Oxford, 1958

Otway-Tuthven, A.J. A History of Medieval Ireland, New York, 1993


Painter, S., The Reign of King John, Baltimore, 1966

Pine, L. G., The Highland Clans, Newton Abbot, 1972


Raftery, D., Pagan Celtic Ireland, London, 1994

Renfrew, C., Before Civilisation, London, 1978

Reynolds, P. J., Iron Age Farm, London, 1979

Roche, R., The Norman Invasion of Ireland, Tralee, 1970

Ross, A., Everyday Life of the Pagan Celts, London, 1972

Rowan, A., The Buildings of North West Ulster, Penguin, 1979


Stover, L. E. and Craig, B., Stonehenge and the Origins of Western Culture, London, 1979


Thomas, W. S. K. Brecon 1093-1660, Llandysul, 1991

Times Books, History of Europe, London, 2001


Underhill, N. The Lord Chancellor, Lavenham, 1978


Ward, Benedicta trans., The Sayings of the Desert Fathers, London, 1983

Weber, M., The Sociology of Religion, Boston, 1964


The following standard works of reference were consulted extensively


Catholic Encyclopaedia, 1913,

Dictionary of National Biography, CDROM edition, Oxford University Press, 1996

Dictionary of Welsh Biography; London  1959

Encarta Encyclopaedia 95, CDROM, Microsoft Corporation, 1994, Copyright © 1994 Microsoft Corporation. Copyright © 1994 Funk & Wagnall’s Corporation;

Encyclopaedia  Britannica, Standard edition CDROM, Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 2001

Jerusalem Bible, English edition with abridged notes, London, 1971. The references to the various books of the Bible are in the standard form like 1 Samuel 2.3, meaning First Book of Samuel, chapter 2 verse 3.



Copyright Desmond J. Keenan, B.S.Sc.; Ph.D. ;.London, U.K.