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Biographical Notes

[Ireland 1800-1850 Copyright © 2001 by Desmond Keenan. Book available from and] 

(All Irish are Protestants, unless the contrary is stated. Religion occasionally unknown)


Abbot, Charles (1757-1829), English politician, Irish Secretary 1801-02.

Addington, Henry (1757-1844), English politician, 1st viscount Sidmouth, Prime Minister 1801-02.

Althorpe, Lord (1782-1845), British peer, John Charles Spencer, 3rd earl Spencer.

Anderson, John (c. 1800), Scottish mailcoach contractor.

Anglesey, marquis of (1768-1854), British peer, Henry William Paget, 1st marquis of Anglesey, Lord Lieutenant 1828-29, 1830-33.

Anne, Queen (1665-1714), daughter of James II, queen 1702-1714.

Ball, Nicholas (1791-1865), Irish Catholic barrister.

Barnewall, Hon. Mr., Irish Catholic gentleman; brother of Baron Trimleston.

Barrett, Richard, Journalist, owner of the Pilot.

Barrett, Eaton Stannard, (1786-1820), Journalist.

Bedford, Duke of, (1766-1839), British peer, John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford, agriculturalist, Lord Lieutenant 1806-07.

Bellew, Sir Edward, Irish Catholic gentleman, 6th baronet, Barmeath, co. Louth, Catholic leader.

Bellew, Sir Patrick, (1798-1866) 1st Baron Bellew (1838), Irish Catholic, son of Sir Edward.

Bellew, Richard Montesquieu, Irish Catholic politician, 2nd son of Sir Edward.

Bellew, William, Irish Catholic barrister, brother of Sir Edward.

Beresford, John George, (1773-1862), son of 1st marquis of Waterford, archbishop of Armagh1822-1862.

Beresford, William Carr, (1768-1854), Portuguese field marshal.

Bessborough, 3rd Earl of, (1758-1858), Frederick Ponsonby.

Bessborough, 4th Earl of, See Lord Duncannon.

Blackbourne, Francis, (1782-1867), Barrister.

Black, Rev. Robert, (1752-1817), Presbyterian clergyman,

Blake, Anthony Richard, (1786-1849), Irish Catholic barrister.

Blake, Dr Michael, (1775-1860), RC bishop of Dromore, (co Down).

Brady, Maziere, (1796-1871), barrister, judge.

Browne, Hon. William, Irish Catholic gentleman, brother of the Catholic Earl of Kenmare.

Bruen, Colonel, Landowner and MP in Carlow.

Bryan, Captain, Irish Catholic gentlemen.

Burdett, Sir Francis, (1770-1844), English Radical politician.

Burke, Sir John, Irish Catholic gentleman.

Bushe, Charles Kendall, (1767-1843), barrister, sol. gen. 1805-22, Chief Justice of King's Bench 1822-41.

Butler, Charles, (1750-1832) English Catholic barrister, Secretary of English Catholics 1782.

Canning, George, (1770-1827), English Tory politician, Prime Minister 1827.

Cantwell, Dr John, (1792-1866), RC bishop of Meath.

Carhampton, Lord, (1743-1821), Henry Lawes Luttrell, 2nd Earl Carhampton, British general, c.-in-c. Ireland 1796-98.

Carlile, Dr James, (1784-1854) Presbyterian minister, educationalist.

Caroline, Princess, (1768-1821), Princess Caroline of Brunswick, wife of George, Prince of Wales.

Castlereagh, Lord, (1769-1822), Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, 2nd Marquis of Londonderry, Irish Secretary 1798-1801, also Secretary for War and Foreign Secretary.

Clancarty, Lord, (1741-1845), William Trench, 1st Earl of Clancarty, agriculturalist.

Clancarty, Lord, (1767-1837), Richard le Poer Trench, 2nd Earl of Clancarty.

Clanrickarde, Marquis of, (1802-1874), Ulick John Burke, Whig, 1st marquis.

Clarendon, Lord, (1800-1870), George William Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, English Whig, Lord Lieutenant 1847-52.

Cloncurry, Lord, (1773-1853), Valentine Lawless, 2nd Baron Cloncurry, reforming magistrate.

Colby, Major Thomas, (1784-1852), British officer in Royal Engineers, in charge of Ordnance Survey.

Cole, Henrietta, daughter of Earl of Enniskillen, wife of Earl de Grey.

Concanen, O.P. Dr Luke, Irish Dominican friar, agent of Irish bishops in Rome.

Conroy, Captain John, (1786-1854), Private secretary of Duchess of Kent.

Consalvi, Cardinal, (1757-1824), Italian churchman, Ercole Consalvi, Secretary of State to Pius VII.

Conway, Frederick William, (1777-1853) journalist, editor, and later proprietor of Dublin Evening Post, Whig.

Conyngham, Marquis, (1776-1832), Henry Conyngham, 1st Marquis, Tory.

Conyngham, Marchioness, Elizabeth Denison, wife of preceding, close friend of George IV.

Cook, Rev Henry, (1788-1868), Presbyterian minister, leader of 'Subscribers'.

Corbally, Matthew, Catholic gentleman from Meath, brother-in-law of Lord Killeen.

Cornwallis, Marquis, (1738-1805), British general, Charles Cornwallis, 1st marquis, LordLieutenant 1798-1801, surrendered to Washington at Yorktown 1781.

Corry, Isaac, (1755-1813), Tory politician.

Costello, Marcus, Irish Catholic barrister; connected with trade union politics.

Crawford, William Sharman, (1781-1861), landowner from co. Down, Federalist, advocate of Tenant Right.

Crolly, Dr William, (1780-1849) RC archbishop of Armagh1835-1849.

Cullen, Dr Paul, (1803-78), Roman agent of Irish bishops, archbishop of Armagh 1850, of Dublin 1852, later made a cardinal.

Cumberland, Duke of, (1771-1851), royal duke, Ernest Augustus, 5th son of George III, succeeded to throne of Hanover in 1837.

Curtis, Dr Patrick, (1740-1832), RC archbishop of Armagh1819-32.

Dargan, William, (1799-1867), railway contractor.

Davis, Thomas Osborne, (1814-1845), journalist.

Dawson, Alexander, Whig landowner in co. Louth, MP.

de Grey, Earl, (1781-1859), British Tory peer, Thomas Philip Grey, 2nd Earl de Grey , Lord Lieutenant 1841-44.

Denvir, Dr Cornelius, (1791-1866), RC bishop of Down and Connor.

Devon, Earl of, (1807-1888), English peer, William Reginald Courtenay, 11th Earl of Devon, agriculturalist and farm improver.

Doherty, John, (1783-1850), barrister, law officer, judge.

Donoughmore, Earl of, (1756-1825), Richard Hely-Hutchinson, 1st earl, friend of Prince of Wales.

Doyle, Dr James Warren, (1786-1834), RC bishop of Kildare and Leighlin 1819-34.

Drummond, Thomas, (1797-1840) Scottish soldier, Under-secretary to Lord Lieutenant 1835-40.

Duffy, Charles Gavan, (1816-1903), Catholic journalist, founder of  the Nation and Young Ireland.

Duigenan, Dr Patrick, (1735-1816), Doctor of Laws, exponent of 'ascendancy'.

Duncannon, Lord, (1781-1847), John William Ponsonby, Viscount Duncannon, 4th Earl of Bessborough, Lord Lieutenant 1846-47.

Ebrington, Lord, (1818-1905), English Whig peer, Hugh Fortescue, Viscount Ebrington, later 3rd Earl Fortescue, Lord Lieutenant 1839-1841.

Edgeworth, Maria, (1767-1849), writer, educationalist.

Edgeworth, Richard Lovell (1744-1817), educationalist, inventor, father of Maria.

Eliot, Lord, (1798-1877), British Tory, Edward Granville, Viscount Eliot, later 3rd Earl of St Germans, Irish Secretary, 1841-45.

Elliot, William, British politician, Irish Secretary 1806-07.

Emmet, Robert, (1778-1803), United Irishman.

Enniskillen, Earl of, (1807-1886), Tory, William Willoughby Cole, 3rd earl.

Esmonde, Sir Thomas, Irish Catholic gentleman.

Fingall, Earl of, (1759-1836), Irish Catholic peer, Arthur James Plunket, 8th earl, highest ranking Catholic layman.

Fingall, Earl of, 9th earl, see Lord Killeen.

Fitzgerald, William Vesey, (1783-1843), Tory politician.

Fitzwilliam, Earl, (1748-1832), British peer, Charles Fitzwilliam, 3rd Earl Fitzwilliam, Lord Lieutenant 1795.

Foster, John 'Speaker', (1740-1828), Tory, afterwards Baron Oriel, Last Speaker in Irish Parliament, Chancellor of Irish Exchequer, agriculturalist.

Fox, Charles James, (1749-1806), British Whig leader.

George III, (1738-1820), George of Brunswick, king 1760-1820, mentally incapable 1811-1820.

George IV, (1762-1830), George of Brunswick, Prince of Wales, Prince Regent 1811-1820, king 1820-1830.

Giffard, John, journalist, outspoken proponent of 'ascendancy'.

Goderich, Lord, (1782-1859), British politician, Frederick Robinson, Viscount Goderich, later 1st Earl of Ripon, Prime Minister 1827-28.

Gormanston, Lord, (1775-1860), Irish Catholic peer, Viscount Gormanston.

Gough, Lord, (1779-1869), Hugh Geogh, General, viscount.

Goulburne, Henry, (1784-1856), British politician, Irish Secretary 1821-27.

Graham, Sir James, (1792-1861) British Tory politician, Home Secretary under Peel.

Grant, Charles, (1778-1866), Scottish peer, later Baron Glenelg, Irish Secretary 1818-21.

Grattan, Henry, (1746-1820), Irish Whig Opposition leader.

Grattan, junior, Henry, (1789-1859), politician, son of preceding.

Gray, Dr John, (1816-1875), journalist, proprietor of the Freeman's Journal.

Gregory, William, (1766-1840), Under-secretary to Lord Lieutenant 1812-30.

Gregory, Sir William Henry, 1817-1892, grandson of preceding, Irish politician, Governor of Ceylon, author of the ‘Gregory clause.’

Gregory XVI, (1765-1846), Italian churchman, Bartolomeo Mauro Cappellari, Pope 1831-46.

Grenville, Lord, (1759-1834), British Whig peer, William Grenville, Baron Grenville, Prime Minister 1805-06.

Grey, Lord, (1764-1845), British Whig peer, Charles Grey, Viscount Howick, 2nd Earl Grey, Prime Minister 1830-34.

Grey, Sir George, (1799-1882), British Whig Home Secretary 1846-52.

Griffith, Richard, (1784-1878), surveyor and valuer.

Haddington, Earl of, (1780-1858) British Tory peer, Thomas Hamilton, 9th earl, appointed Lord Lieutenant by Peel in 1835.

Hardinge, Sir Henry, (1785-1856), British soldier, Irish Secretary in 1830 and 1835.

Hardwicke, Earl of, (1757-1834), British Whig, Philip Yorke, 3rd Earl of Hardwicke, Lord Lieutenant 1801-06.

Hart, Sir Anthony, (1754?-1831), British barrister, Irish Lord Chancellor 1826-30.

Hay, Edward, (1771-1826), Catholic Gentleman, Secretary of Irish Catholics 1807-1819.

Henry, Dr. Shuldham  (1801-1881), Presbyterian minister, educationalist.

Hertford, Marchioness of, (d.1836) Isabella Shepherd, close friend of Prince Regent.

Heytesbury, Lord, (1779-1860), British Tory, William Heytesbury, Baron Heytesbury, Lord Lieutenant 1844-45.

Hickey, Rev. William, (1787-1875), C. of I. clergyman, agriculturalist.

Higgins, Dr. William, (1793-1853), RC bishop of Ardagh (Longford).

Hincks, Thomas Dix, (1767-1857), Presbyterian minister, educationalist.

Howick, Lord, see Lord Grey.

Hume, Joseph, (1777-1855), British Radical politician.

Hutchinson, Lord, (1757-18320, John Hely-Hutchinson, 1st Baron Hutchinson, friend of Prince of Wales, brother of Earl of Donoughmore.

Inglis, Sir Robert, (1786-1855) British High Tory politician, author of phrase ‘Godless colleges’.

James II, (1633-1701), James Stuart, king 1685-88.

Kane, Sir Robert, (1809-1890), Catholic scientist.

Keane, Sir John, (1781-1844), General, C-in-C. India 1833.

Kelly, Dr Thomas, RC bishop of Dromore, archbishop of Armagh1833-34

Kenmare, Earl of, Catholic peer.

Kennedy, John Pitt, (1796-1879), Royal Engineers, agriculturalist .

Kennedy, Dr Patrick, (1786-1850), RC bishop of Killaloe (Clare and Tipperary).

Kent, Duchess of, (1786-1861), Victoria Mary of Saxe-Saalfeld-Coburg, Countess of Dublin,   wife of Duke of Kent, 4th son of George III, mother of Queen Victoria.

Keogh, John, (1740-1810?), Catholic merchant.

Killeen, Lord, (1791-1869), Arthur James Plunkett, later 9th Earl of Fingall, from about 1820 the effective Catholic lay leader.

Knight of Kerry, (1774-1849), Maurice Fitzgerald, moderate Tory, an hereditary knight.

Labouchere, Henry, (1798-1869), British peer, later Baron Taunton, Irish Secretary 1846-47.

Lalor, James Fintan, (d 1849), journalist with French socialist ideas.

Lamb, Hon. William, See Lord Melbourne, Irish Secretary 1827-28 .

Lancaster, Joseph, (1778-1838), British Nonconformist, educationalist.

Lansdowne, Marquis of, (1780-1863), Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd marquis, Tory/Whig.

Lawless, 'Honest' Jack, (1773-1837), Catholic journalist, Radical.

Leinster, Duke of, (1791-1874), Augustus Frederick Fitzgerald, 3rd duke, only Irish duke, highest ranking Irish lord.

Leveson-Gower, Lord, (1800-1857), Francis, later called Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere, British Tory, son of the agriculturalist, the Marquis of Stafford, Irish Secretary 1828-30.

Littleton, Edward, (1791-1863), British Whig, later 1st Baron  Hatherton, Irish Secretary 1833-34.

Liverpool, Earl of, (1770-1827), British Tory, Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd earl, Prime Minister 1812-27.

Londonderry, Marquis of, (1778-1854), Tory, Charles William Vane-Stewart, 3rd marquis, half-brother of Lord Castlereagh whom he succeeded as marquis.

McGee, Thomas D’Arcy, (1825-68), journalist, Young Irelander.

MacHale, Archbishop John, (1791-1881), RC archbishop of Tuam (central Connaught).

MacNally, Dr Charles, 1787-1864), RC bishop of Clogher (Monaghan).

Magee, John, (c 1815), Whig newspaper proprietor of  Dublin Evening Post.

Maginn, Dr Edward, (1802-1849), RC bishop of Derry.

Maher, Rev James, RC political priest  in Carlow.

Mahon, Nicholas, Irish Catholic banker.

Mahon, Charles O'Gorman, (1800-1891), Irish Catholic gentleman.

Malthus, Rev. Thomas, (1776-1834), British clergyman, first to study population.

Manners, Lord, (1756-1842), British Tory barrister, Thomas Manners-Sutton, 1st Baron Manners, Irish Lord Chancellor 1807-27.

Mant, Dr. Richard, (1776-1848), British Tory churchman, C. of I. bishop of Down and Connor, 1823-48.

Meagher, Thomas Francis, (1822-1867), Young Irelander.

Melbourne, Lord, (1779-1848), British Whig, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Mellbourne, Irish Secretary 1827-28, Prime Minister 1834, 1835-41,

Milner, Dr John, (1752-1856), English Catholic bishop, vicar apostolic of the Midland District.

Minto, Lord, (1782-1859), Gilbert Elliot, 2nd Earl of Minto.

Mitchel, John, (1815-1875), solicitor, journalist.

Mitford, Sir John, (1748-1830), British barrister, 1st Baron Redesdale, Irish Lord Chancellor 1802-1806.

Moira, Lord, (1754-1826), Tory, Francis Rawdon Hastings, 2nd Earl of Moira, friend of Prince of Wales.

Montgomery, Rev. Henry, (1788-1865), Presbyterian minister, leader            of 'Non-Subscribers'.

Moore, Sir John, (1761-1809), British general, in Ireland 1798-99, noted for his mildness.

Morpeth, Lord, (1802-1864), British Whig, George Howard, Viscount Morpeth, later 7th Earl of Carlisle, Irish Secretary 1835-41.

Mulgrave, Earl of, (1797-1863), Constantine Henry Phipps, British Whig, 2nd Earl of Mulgrave, 1st Marquis of Normanby 1838, Lord Lieutenant 1835-39.

Murray, Archbishop Daniel, (1768-1852), titular archbishop of Hierapolis 1809-1825, RC archbishop of Dublin, 1823-52.

Napier, Sir Charles, (1782-1853) General, commanded in India.

Napier, Sir Joseph, (1804-1882) General, also commanded in India.

Netterville, Viscount, Irish Catholic peer.

Newman, Dr John Henry, (1801-1890), English Protestant clergyman, accepted papal authority 1845, later made a cardinal.

Newport, Sir John, (1756-1843), Whig baronet, politician.

Nicholls, Sir George, (1781-1865), English magistrate and poor law administrator.

Nimmo, Alexander, (1763-1832), Scottish soldier and engineer.

Nolan, Dr Edward, RC bishop of Kildare and Leighlin.

Norbury, Lord (1745-1831), John Toler, 1st Baron Norbury, Chief Justice of Common Pleas 1800-1827.

Norfolk, Duke of, (1791-1856), Henry Charles Howard, 13th duke, English Catholic Whig, lay leader of English Catholics.

North, Lord, (1732-1792), Lord Frederick North, British Whig; in coalition with Fox in 1783.

Northumberland, Duke of, (1785-1847), Hugh Percy, 3rd duke, British Tory, Lord Lieutenant 1829-1830.

Northumberland, Duchess of,  (d.1866) Lady Charlotte-Florentia Clive, State Governess of Princess Victoria.

O'Brien, William Smith, (1803-1864), Landowner, MP, Repealer.

O'Connell, Daniel, (1775-1847), Catholic barrister, agitator.

O'Connell, John, (1810-1855), Catholic Whig politician, son of Daniel.

O'Connor, Feargus, (1794-1855), Irish politician, Chartist.

O'Conor Don, (the), Irish Catholic gentleman.

O'Ferrall, Richard More, (1797-1880), Irish Catholic gentleman.

O'Gorman, Purcell, Catholic barrister, Secretary of Irish Catholics, 1819-29.

O'Loughlin, Michael, (1789-1842), Catholic barrister, law officer, judge.

O'Sullivan, Rev Mortimer, (1791-1859), C. of I. clergyman, anti-popery preacher.

Palmerston, Lord, (1784-1865) Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, Irish landowner and nominally an Irish peer. Notable career as Foreign Secretary.

Parnell, Sir Henry, (1776-1842), Whig politician, created 1st Baron Congleton.

Peel, Sir Robert, (1788-1850), British Tory baronet, Irish Secretary 1812-18, Prime Minister 1834-35, 1841-46.

Pennefather, Edward, (1774-1847), barrister, judge.

Pennefather, Sir John, (1800-1872), general, served in India.

Perceval, Spencer, (1762-1812), British Tory politician, Prime Minister 1809-12.

Pitt, William (the Younger), (1759-1806), British Tory politician, Prime Minister 1783-1801, 1804-1806.

Pius IX (Pio Nono), (1792-1878), Italian churchman, Giovanni Mastai-Ferretti, Pope 1846-78.

Pius VI (1717-1799), Italian churchman, Giovanni Braschi, Pope 1775-99.

Pius VII, (1740-1823), Italian churchman, Gregorio Chiaramonti, Pope 1800-23.

Plunket, William Conyngham (1764-1854), 1st Baron Plunket, Tory/Whig, barrister, law officer, Irish Lord, Chancellor 1830-41.

Plunkett, Dr Patrick, (1738-1827), RC bishop of Meath.

Poynter, Dr William, (1762-1827), English RC bishop, vicar apostolic of London District.

Ponsonby, George, (1755-1817), Whig leader, Irish Lord Chancellor 1806-07.

Portland, Duke of, (1738-1809), William Henry Bentinck, 3rd duke, British Whig/Tory, Prime Minister1783, 1807-09.

Redesdale, Lord, see Sir John Mitford.

Redington, Sir Thomas, (1815-1862), Catholic gentleman, Under-secretary to Lord Lieutenant 1846-47.

Rice, Thomas Spring, (1790-1866), Whig politician, 1st Baron Mounteagle.

Roden, Earl of, (1788-1870), Robert Jocelyn, 3rd earl, lay leader of the 'Evangelicals'.

Rosse, Earl of, (1800-1867), William Parsons, 3rd earl, astronomer.

Russell, Lord John, (1792-1878), British Whig, son of 6th Duke of Bedford, 1st Earl Russell, Prime Minister, 1846-52, 1865-66.

Ryan, James, Catholic merchant, Acting Secretary of Irish Catholics 1804-07.

Saurin, William, (1757-1839), barrister, law officer, leading opponent of Catholic claims.

Scully, Denys, (1773-1830), Catholic barrister.

Sharman-Crawford, see Crawford, William Sharman.

Shaw, Sir Frederick, (1799-1876), Tory, barrister, Recorder of Dublin.

Sheil, Richard Lalor, (1791-1851), Catholic barrister, Whig, one of the leaders of the Catholic Association.

Sidmouth, Lord, see Henry Addington.

Slattery, Archbishop Michael, (1783-1857), RC archbishop of Cashel (Tipperary).

Sligo, Marquis of, (1756-1809) John Denis Browne, Earl of Altamont, 1st Marquis of Sligo, leading Irish agriculturalist.

Smith, Thomas Cusack, (1795-1866), barrister, law officer, judge.

Somerville, Sir William, (1802-1873), Whig politician, Irish Secretary 1847-52.

Southwell, Viscount, Irish Catholic peer.

Spring Rice, see Rice, Thomas Spring.

Stanley, Lord, (1799-1869), Edward Stanley, British Whig/Tory, Lord Stanley 1834, later 14th Earl of Derby, Irish Secretary 1831-33.

Stuart, Henry Villiers, (1803-1874), Whig landowner.

Sugden, Sir Edward, (1781-1875), English Tory lawyer, later 1st Baron St. Leonards, Irish Lord Chancellor 1834-35, 1841-46.

Sussex, Duke of, (1773-1843), royal duke, Augustus Frederick, son of George III, supporter of Catholic Emancipation.

Talbot, Earl, (1777-1849), Charles Chetwynd Talbot, 2nd Earl Talbot, British Tory, Lord Lieutenant 1817-21.

Telford, Thomas, 1757-1834, famous Scottish engineer, builder of roads, canals and railways.

Trimleston, Lord, (1726-1813), , Nicholas Barnewall, 14th Baron Trimleston, Irish Catholic peer

Trimleston, Lord, (1773-1839), , John Thomas Barnewall, 15th baron Trimleston, Irish Catholic peer.

Troy, Archbishop Thomas, (1739-1823) RC archbishop of Dublin 1784-1823.

Victoria, Queen, (1819-1901), Alexandrina Victoria of Brunswick, queen 1837 to 1901.

Wellesley, Arthur, (1769-1852), general, Irish Secretary 1807-09, 1st Duke of Wellington, Prime Minister 1828-30.

Wellesley, Richard Colley, (1760-1842), 1st Marquis Wellesley, Lord Lieutenant 1821-28, 1833-34.

Wellesley-Pole, William, (1763-1845), 1st Baron Maryborough, Irish Secretary 1809-12.

Wellesley, Henry, (1773-1847), 4th Wellesley brother, 1st Baron Cowley; his wife eloped with Lord Paget (Anglesey).

Whateley, Archbishop Richard, (1787-1863), English clergyman, Protestant archbishop of Dublin 1831-63.

Whitworth, Lord, (1752-1825), Charles Whitworth, 1st Baron Whitworth, British Tory, Lord Lieutenant 1813-17.

William III, (1650-1702), William of Orange, married Mary, daughter of James II, king 1689-1702.

William IV, (1765-1837), William Henry of Brunswick, Duke of Clarence, 3rd son of George III, king 1830-37.

Woulfe, Stephen, (1787-1840), Catholic barrister, law officer, judge, Whig.

Wyse, Sir Thomas, (1791-1862), Catholic gentleman, Whig, politician, educationalist, diplomat.

Yarmouth, Lord, (1777-1842), Francis Charles Seymour-Conway, son of Marchioness of Hertford, British Tory peer,

York, Duke of, (1763-1827), royal duke, Frederick Augustus, 2nd son of George III.

Further information on most of the above can readily be found in the Dictionary of National Biography.

Note on usage. 

            The following usage for the word 'Lord' is given the Oxford English Dictionary.  Informally, it may be substituted for 'Marquis', 'Earl', and 'Viscount', whether when denoting the rank of the peer, or applied by courtesy to the eldest son of a high-ranking peer, the word 'of' (if it occurs) being dropped. Thus, the 'Earl of Derby' becomes 'Lord Derby'. The eldest son of a peer in his father’s lifetime is called by one of his father’s secondary titles. Thus Viscount Howick was the eldest son of Earl Grey. A lord may also have two successive titles if he is promoted in the peerage, or holds different peerages in Britain and Ireland

            A baron is always referred to as 'Lord', the Christian name, if used, preceding the title, as in 'Alfred, Lord Tennyson.'

            The younger sons of dukes and marquises have the courtesy title of Lord preceding the Christian name, as in Lord John Russell

            Baronets form the lowest rank of hereditary peers. Their title is 'Sir', preceding the Christian name.

            Knights are also called 'Sir'. They are non-hereditary members of the various Orders of Chivalry, like the Order of the Garter. The three Irish hereditary knights are anomalous, and are strictly speaking baronets. They were the Knight of Kerry, the Knight of Glyn, and the White Knight.

            Though not forming any rank in the peerage an hereditary headship of an Irish clan was sometimes claimed as a title of honour. Such a person was referred to by his surname, sometimes with 'the' prefixed, as in 'the O'Conor Don' the head of a branch of the O'Conors

            A 'gentleman' strictly speaking was a commoner, not a Jew, not engaged in trade, and being supported by rents from land, though all peers and knights were also gentlemen in a broader sense. His title was 'Mister' preceding the surname. One became a gentleman only through social acceptance, in particular if one's challenge to fight a duel was accepted. Military officers, clergymen of the Established Church and barristers were counted as gentlemen.



Copyright Desmond J. Keenan, B.S.Sc.; Ph.D. ;.London, U.K.