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1850-1920ContentsIntroductionChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3

Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9

Chapter 10Chapter 11AppendicesBiographyBibliography

[IIreland 1850-1920 Copyright © 2005 by Desmond Keenan. Book available from and]



Adams, J.R., The Printed Word and the Common Man, Belfast, 1987

Allison R. S., The Seeds of Time, Belfast, 1972

Anderson, E. B., Sailing Ships of Ireland, Coleraine, 1984

Barnes, J., Irish Industrial Schools 1868-1908, Dublin, 1989

Barnett, C., Britain and her Army 1509-1970, London, 1974

Beckett, J., et al. Belfast the Making of the City, Belfast, 1988

Beckett, J.C., The Making of Modern Ireland, 1603-1923, London, 1972

Bell, J. and Watson, M., Irish Farming – Implements, and Techniques, 1750-1900, Edinburgh, 1986

Bew, P., Ideology and the Irish Question, Oxford, 1994

---------- John Redmond, Dundalk, 1996

--------- ‘Politics and the Rise of the Skilled Working Man’ in Beckett, Belfast, the Making of the    City

Bishop, P. and Mallie, E., The Provisional IRA, London, 1987

Black. E., ‘Of Art and Artists' in Beckett, Belfast, the Making of the City

Boyd, A., The Rise of the Irish Trade Unions, Anville Books, 1985

Boyle, E., ‘Linenopolis’ in Beckett, Belfast, the Making of the City

Brady, C., O'Dowd, M., and Walker, B., Ulster, an Illustrated History, London, 1989

Briggs. M. and Jordan, P., Economic History of England, London, 1967

Brook, P 'Religion and Secular Thought' in Beckett, Belfast, the Making of the City

Bucke, E., History of the Times Vol. III London 1947

Buckland, F, Irish Unionism 1885-1923, Belfast, 1973

Burke, J.F. Outlines of the Industrial History of Ireland, Dublin, n.d.

Burns, J.A., ‘Schools’, Catholic Encyclopaedia, New York, 1908, 2003 edition

Buschkuhl, M., Great Britain and the Holy See 1746-1870, Dublin, 1982

Campbell, C., Fenian Fire, London 2002

Canavan, T., Frontier Town, Belfast, 1989

Catholic Encyclopaedia, New York, 1908, 2003 edition Clarkson, L., 'The City and the Country' in Beckett, Belfast, the Making of the City

Colles, R, The History of Ulster IV, London, 1920                             

Corish, P., The Irish Catholic Experience, Dublin, 1985

Cosgrove, A. and McGuire, J., eds., Parliament and Community, Belfast, 1983

Cullen, L. M., ed. The Formation of the Irish Economy, Cork, 1969

Cullen, L.M. and Smout, T.C. eds, Scottish and Irish Social and Economic History 1600-1900, Edinburgh, n.d.

Cusick, P., ‘Gerald Molloy’, Catholic Encyclopaedia, New York, 1908, 2003 edition

D'Alton, E. A., ‘Ireland’ Catholic Encyclopaedia, New York, 1908, 2003 edition

Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford 1996 CR-Rom edition

Dictionary of National Biography, Revised version, Oxford, 2004, online edition,

Dod, C.R., Electoral Facts from 1832 to 1853 republished by The Harvester Press, Brighton, from the 1853 edition

Donovan, R., ‘University College Dublin’, Catholic Encyclopaedia, New York, 1908, 2003 edition

Dowling, R. J., A History of Irish Education, Cork, 1971

Fanning, R, 'Rats' versus 'Ditchers' in Cosgrove and Maguire Parliament and Community, Belfast, 1983

Fingall, Elizabeth Countess of, Seventy Years Young, as told to Pamela Hinkson, Dublin, 1991

Flanagan, P.J. The Cavan and Leitrim Railway, London, 1966

Freeman, T.W. Ireland, a General and Regional Geography, London, 1960

Gillespie, R. and O’Sullivan, H., The Border Lands, Belfast, 1989

Gray, J 'Popular Entertainment' in Beckett, Belfast, the Making of the City

Hannah, W. H., Bobs, Kipling's General, London, 1972

Harbison, P., Homan, P. and Sheehy, J., Irish Art and Architecture, London, 1978        

Harris, R.G. The Irish Regiments 1683-1999, New York, 1999

Heatley, F ‘Community Relations and Religious Geography’ in Beckett, Belfast, the Making of the City

Hewett, O. W., ed. …and Mr Fortescue, London, 1958

Hewitt, J, 'The Northern Athens' in Beckett, Belfast, the Making of the City

Hinkson, Pamela see Fingall, Countess of

Hitler, A., Mein Kampf, trans. R. Manheim, London, 1969

Howart, D. and S., The Story of the P and O, London, 1986

Jeremy, D. ed., Dictionary of Business Biography, London, 1984

Keegan, J.,              The Mask of Command, London, 1987

Keenan, D., The Catholic Church in Nineteenth Century Ireland, Dublin, 1983

-------------- The Grail of Catholic Emancipation 1793-1829, Xlibris 2002

-------------- The True Origins of Irish Society, Xlibris, 2003

-------------- Ireland 1800-1850, Xlibris, 2001

---------------Pre-Famine Ireland: Social Structure, Xlibris, 2000

Keith, A. B., Speeches and Documents on the British Dominions 1918-1931, Oxford, 1932

Kennedy, L., Colonialism, Religion, and Nationalism in Ireland, Belfast, 1996

Kenny, C., King's Inns and the Kingdom of Ireland, Dublin, 1992

Lalor, B., ed. The Encyclopaedia of Ireland, Dublin, 2003

Lipsey, R., An Introduction to Positive Economics, London, 1963

Lyons, F. S. L., Ireland Since the Famine, London, 1973

Lyons, J. B., Brief Lives of Irish Doctors 1600-1965, Dublin, 1978.

MacDonald, L., The Last Man, Penguin, London, 1998

MacDowell, R. B., The Church of Ireland 1869-1969, London 1975

MacNeill, M., Vere Foster 1819-1900, Newton Abbot, 1971

Maguire, W.A., 'Lords and Landlords' in Beckett, Belfast, the Making of the City

McNeilly, N., ed., Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society 1831-1981, Belfast, 1981

Milne, K., The Church of Ireland a History, Dublin nd

M'Kenna, J. E., Diocese of Clogher, Enniskillen, 1920        

Newspaper Press Directory, London 1880

Newspapers and Periodicals, Waterloo Directory of Irish 1800-1900, Waterloo, Ontario, 1986

O'Donnell, P., 'Catholic University of Ireland’, Catholic Encyclopaedia, New York, 1908, 2003 edition,

O'Grada, C, Ireland; a New Economic History, 1780-1939, Oxford, 1994

O'Halloran, C. Partition and the Limits of Irish Nationalism, Dublin, 1987

Packenham, T., The Boer War, London, 1982

Pearce, E. Lines of Most Resistance, London, 1999

Prideaux, J. The Irish Narrow Gauge Railways, Newtown Abbot, 1981

Reid, T. W, Life of the Rt. Hon. W.E. Forster, London, 1888, 2 vols

Richards, D. and Hunt J.W., Modern Britain 1783-1964, London, 1965

Spears, E. Liaison, 1914, London, 1968

Sweetnam, R ‘The Development of the Port' in Beckett, Belfast, the Making of the City

Synge, J. M., In Wicklow, Kerry and Connemara, Dublin, 1980

Vaughan, W. E., 'Landlord and Tenant Relations in Ireland’ in Cullen, L.M. and Smout, T.C. eds, Scottish and Irish Social and Economic History

Walker, B., Ulster Politics, the Formative Years 1868-1886, Belfast, 1989

--------------‘Ulster Society and Politics 1801-1921’ in Brady, O’Dowd and Walker, Ulster, an Illustrated History

White, Terence de Vere, The Story of the Royal Dublin Society, Tralee, 1955

Whyte, J. H. The Independent Irish Party, Oxford, 1958



          As in my earlier books my primary sources were the newspapers and the Dictionary of National Biography. These I read first to form my own opinions, and then I read the printed histories primarily to see if I had missed anything important. Chronology is the backbone of history, and it allows the reader to see the sequence of events. Chronology too gives the author spaces he must fill in. He is not allowed to jump from episode to episode selecting only those that fit his theory, a besetting sin in writing Irish history. Nor is the writer allowed to select ‘themes’ which fit his argument, a besetting sin in socialist versions of history. On these latter the philosopher Karl Popper argued that you can prove any theory you wish by selecting only the facts that support your theory. Also by studying the primary sources first the temptation just to follow earlier authors like sheep through a gap is avoided.

          Because of the large size of newspapers at the end of the nineteenth century it was not possible within a reasonable timeframe to read the daily newspapers, so weekly editions were used. These gave the essential facts. The Weekly Irish Times proved outstanding with its wide and sympathetic coverage of most aspects of Irish life. Journals pertaining to particular professions were very useful. Particularly useful were the issues of the Irish Constabulary Gazette for they expressed the views of an important body of Irishmen. In quoting these sources I tried to do so as far as possible verbatim, at times changing only the tenses of the verbs. This at times resulted in a certain inelegance but the flavour of the times and the immediacy are retained.

          The Dictionary of National Biography was another extremely useful source as there is an entry on almost every important Irishman or people from Britain who spent some time in Ireland. The information given regarding Ireland might amount to only a few snippets, but put together in a chronological framework they allow a picture to be built up. Just as this work was coming to an end the online version of the New Dictionary of National Biography became available. This is a revision of the old work but does not render the older edition obsolete. In fact the old version is given alongside the new, and it is useful to consult both for the incorporation of new material often means that some of the older material must be omitted. But the new version allows for re-evaluations of reputations which can be instructive.

          The articles in the old edition of the Catholic Encyclopaedia available in the online edition and on CD-ROM are instructive in two ways. They give the relevant facts and canon law on a particular subject. But they also illustrate the extraordinary anti-Protestant bias of Irish Catholic priests of the period. Were it not for the fact that the articles can be checked against other sources one would be inclined to accept the versions of Irish history given by Catholic priests at face value.


1/-       One shilling, the shilling being one twentieth of a pound sterling

1/6       One shilling and six pence or pennies, or twelfths of a shilling

A.O.H.  Ancient Order of Hibernians

Bart.     Baronet

C. of I.  Church of Ireland

DMP    Dublin Metropolitan Police

DORA Defence of the Realm Act (1914)

GOC    General Officer Commanding

IAOS      Irish Agricultural Organisation Society

INTO   Irish National Teachers Organisation

IRA      Irish Republican Army

IRB         Irish Republican Brotherhood

J. P.      Justice of the Peace

LEA     Local Education Authority

MP       Member of Parliament

OBE     Order of the British Empire

OED    Oxford English Dictionary

op. cit.     opus citatum the work cited just previously

passim     in various places

R.E       Royal Engineers

RIC         Royal Irish Constabulary

RUC     Royal Ulster Constabulary

S.J.        Society of Jesus

T.B.      Tuberculosis

UUC    Ulster Unionist Council 

UVF     Ulster Volunteer Force

VAD     Voluntary Aid Detachment

WIT     Weekly Irish Times



Copyright Desmond J. Keenan, B.S.Sc.; Ph.D. ;.London, U.K.